挪威拟建世界第一条“悬浮隧道”World's first 'floating tunnel' proposed in Norway

       https://www.nbcnews.com/mach/science/world-s-first-floating-tunnel-proposed-norway-ncna971581

       The submerged roadway would help speed travel along the nation's rugged west coast.
       这条水中公路将有助于加快该国崎岖的西海岸的交通速度。
The proposed "floating tunnel" would be the first of its kind.Vianova / Baezeni
拟建的“悬浮隧道”将是此类隧道的第一条。供图:Vianova / Baezeni

       Steep, icy mountains and deep fjords make western Norway famously scenic, but they also make life difficult for motorists. With seven ferries along the way, the almost 700-mile trip between the cities of Kristiansand in the south and Trondheim in the north typically runs about 21 hours — at an average speed of about 30 miles an hour.
       被冰雪覆盖的陡峭山脉和深深的峡湾使挪威西部成为著名的风景胜地,但它们也给驾驶者的生活带来了困难。从南部的克里斯蒂安桑市到北部的特隆赫姆市,全程约700英里,但由于需要经过7个渡口,通常需耗时21个小时左右,平均旅行速度仅约30英里/小时。
       But that could soon change. A $40-billion infrastructure project being planned by the Norwegian government aims to replace the ferries with bridges, conventional tunnels and what could be the world’s first “floating tunnel.”
       但这种情况可能很快就会改变。挪威政府正在计划一个耗资400亿美元的基础设施项目,旨在用桥梁、传统隧道以及可能是世界上第一条的“悬浮隧道”来取代轮渡。
       The submerged roadway — essentially a pair of concrete tubes submerged about 100 feet below the water’s surface — would help cut the Kristiansand-Trondheim travel time almost in half while minimizing the environmental impact on the area.
       水中公路——本质上是水面以下100英尺处的一对混凝土管道——将有助于将克里斯蒂安桑与特隆赫姆之间的行驶时间缩短近一半,同时最大限度地减少对该地区的环境影响。
The tunnel would be made up of a pair of concrete tubes submerged about 100 feet under the water’s surface.Sn?hetta
这条隧道将由水面以下100英尺处的一对混凝土管道组成。供图:Sn?hetta

       Experts say the floating tunnel concept is especially suited for deep fjords surrounded by steep mountains — features that make it difficult to build bridges or drill tunnels.
       专家表示,悬浮隧道的概念特别适合于被陡峭山脉环绕且水深的峡湾——这些特点使得建造桥梁或钻挖隧道变得非常困难。
       “With bridges that span long distances, you need arches and suspensions at certain points, but for a submerged floating tunnel, if you do it absolutely correct and balance the weight of the structure with the buoyancy of the structure, it can go on forever,” said Nils Erik Anders Rønnquist, a professor of structural engineering at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, who is consulting on the project for the government.
       “对于跨度较长的桥梁,需要在某些位置使用桥拱和悬索。但对于水中悬浮隧道,如果你的方法绝对正确,同时在结构的重量与浮力之间取得平衡,它可以永远维持下去。”挪威科技大学结构工程教授Nils Erik Anders Rønnquist说,他正在为该政府项目提供咨询。
       Though the floating tunnel is buoyant, it isn’t actually floating. The tubes would be stabilized by cables tethered to the seabed or by pontoons floating on the surface at roughly 800-foot intervals. With most of the hardware far below the surface, the tunnel wouldn’t interfere with the movement of ships and boats and even submarines, said Arianna Minoretti, chief engineer for the Norwegian Public Roads Administration.
       虽然悬浮隧道自身具有浮力,但它实际上并没有悬浮。这些管道将由缆索系在海床上,或通过浮在水面上、间隔约800英尺的浮箱来稳定。挪威国家公路局总工程师Arianna Minoretti说,由于大部分硬件都在水面以下,隧道不会干扰船只甚至潜艇的活动。
The tunnel would be stabilized by cables tethered to the seabed or by pontoons floating on the surface.Norwegian Public Roads Administration / Vianova
隧道将由缆索系在海床上,或通过浮在水面上的浮箱来稳定。供图:挪威国家公路局/Vianova

       Like conventional tunnels, the floating tunnel would have escape routes that motorists could take to return to the surface in case of an emergency. And Minoretti said preliminary research regarding the proposed tunnel’s safety has been reassuring.
       和传统隧道一样,悬浮隧道也有逃生路线,供驾驶者在紧急情况下返回表面。Minoretti还表示,关于拟建隧道安全性的初步研究令人欣慰。
       “We have done simulations for big explosions in the tunnel, we’ve checked for impacts of submarines, we covered scenarios where a trawler might hook onto the tunnel, and we even considered if a ship might be sinking at the surface and hit the tunnel on the way down,” Rønnquist said. “I would say things are under control. It’s a very robust structure.”
       “我们已经对隧道里发生大爆炸的情况进行了模拟,我们研究了潜艇撞击的情况,讨论了拖网渔船可能会挂住隧道的场景,我们甚至还考虑了船只在水面沉没并在下沉的过程中撞上隧道的情况。”Rønnquist说。“我想说,一切都在控制之中。它的结构非常坚固。”
       But Michael Mooney, a civil and environmental engineering professor at the Colorado School of Mines, said the trickiest part of designing and building a first-of-its-kind large structure would be anticipating all the possible hiccups.
       但科罗拉多矿业学院(Colorado School of Mines)土木与环境工程学教授Michael Mooney表示,设计和建造这样一座史无前例的大型构筑物,最棘手的部分是预测所有可能出现的问题。
       “You want to make sure you think of all the potential load scenarios or things like wave motion,” said Mooney, who isn’t involved with the Norwegian project. “The big challenge is recognizing where all the issues are and not being surprised by something.”
       “你要确保考虑了所有可能的荷载场景或波浪运动之类的情况。”Mooney说,他本人并没有参与挪威项目。“最大的挑战是要认识到所有问题都在哪里,而且不要对某些事情感到意外。”
       Kevin Chang, a professor of civil and environmental engineering at the University of Idaho, offered a similar assessment of the challenges involved in building such a tunnel. “At the end of the day, the engineering community tends to be on the conservative side,” he said. “But with novel ideas, somebody has to sort of stick their neck out to say:We think this is the best solution even though it’s unproven elsewhere.”
       爱达荷大学土木与环境工程学教授Kevin Chang也对修建这样一条隧道所面临的挑战做出了类似的评估。“说到底,工程界往往站在保守的一边。”他说。“但如果有了新奇的想法,就必须有人站出来说:我们认为这是最好的解决方案,尽管还没有在其它地方得到证实。”
       Plans call for the floating tunnel to open to traffic in 2050. And while it might be the first structure of its kind, it might not be the last. Rønnquist said engineers in Italy and China are pursuing similar concepts.
       根据计划,这条悬浮隧道将于2050年通车。虽然这条隧道可能是此类隧道的第一条,但很大可能不是最后一条。Rønnquist表示,意大利和中国的工程师也正在研究相似的概念。
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