Abstract. All aspects of coal mining will emit large quantities of dust to the tunnel. There are many factors of the floating dust in the tunnel affecting the propagation of electromagnetic waves, such as frequency, consistency and droplet. Combining with the formula in relevant references, this paper uses software to simulate and obtains relevant characteristic curves. Finally, it is clear that the attenuation of propagation increases with the frequency of electromagnetic waves, dust consistency, droplet and temperature also affect the propagation characteristic. Obviously, these factors almost weaken the propagation of electromagnetic waves.