连接日内瓦与洛桑的水下隧道An underwater tunnel connecting Geneva and Lausanne

 https://actu.epfl.ch/news/an-underwater-tunnel-connecting-geneva-and-lausann/

Summer series. Students' projects (5/9) - Drawing inspiration from Elon Musk’s Hyperloop and the Swissmetro initiative, a civil engineering Master’s student has looked into the possibility of building an underwater high-speed train route through Lake Geneva.
       夏季系列。学生毕业设计(5/9):一名土木工程硕士生从伊隆·马斯克(Elon Musk)的超回路列车(Hyperloop)和瑞士城铁(Swissmetro)计划中获得灵感,研究建造一条穿过日内瓦湖的水下高速铁路的可能性。
       One day as you reach Geneva’s main train station to start your daily commute you notice a new sign showing some kind of underwater train. At first, you focus on the ripples marking the surface of the water. But as you approach and look more closely at the sign, you notice something strange about the rails – the train has no wheels. It seems to be suspended in mid-air.
       未来的一天,当你到达日内瓦的主火车站准备开始当天的通勤,却注意到一个崭新的标志,上面指示可乘坐某种水下列车。首先,你把注意力集中在水面上的涟漪。但当你走近并在那个标志处仔细查看时,你会注意到轨道有些诡异之处——列车没有车轮。它似乎悬浮在半空中。
       You follow the arrow, which leads you to an elevator a few meters further on. The destination is indicated above the door: Lausanne. That’s where you’re going. So you get on the elevator, and it takes you deep below the ground. Your fellow passengers look as confused as you are. The elevator doors finally open and you step into a brand-new station already packed with commuters. You get on board. As the train pulls out of the station you realize that it’s not running on the rails but ‘levitating’ above them. You get to Lausanne in around ten minutes. You’re lost for words when it dawns on you that your journey has taken you under the waters of Lake Geneva. Another elevator is waiting for you as you get off the train. It takes you back up to the surface into the familiar bustle of Lausanne’s train station.
       你顺着箭头走,来到几米外的一个电梯旁。电梯门的上方写着目的地:洛桑。那正是你要去的地方。所以你进了电梯,跟着它来到地下深处。同行的乘客看起来和你一样困惑。电梯门终于打开了,你步入一座崭新的车站,里面已经挤满了上班族。你上了车。列车驶出车站时,你才意识到它并非在轨道上运行,而是在轨道上方“悬浮”。大约十分钟,洛桑到了。你现在才反应过来是在日内瓦湖的水下完成了这段旅程,所以你不知说什么好。你下了车,另一部电梯正在等着你。电梯带你回到地面,进入熟悉而喧闹的洛桑火车站。

Following in the footsteps of Swissmetro
       跟随瑞士城铁的脚步
       Elia Notari has just obtained his Master’s in civil engineering from EPFL. He came up with this visionary train line for his Master’s project, which was supervised by Aurelio Muttoni, a full professor and director of EPFL’s Structural Concrete Laboratory (IBETON). Those with a sharp eye will no doubt notice some similarities with the Swissmetro project, an idea for a futuristic metro system developed at EPFL in the 1990s. Swissmetro was intended to link the main towns in Switzerland at a speed of 500 km/h. Notari’s Master’s project is in fact a variation of the Swissmetro design, which put the trains in underground tunnels rather than through Lake Geneva.
      Elia Notari刚刚从洛桑联邦理工学院(EPFL)获得土木工程硕士学位。他为自己的硕士毕业设计了这条富有远见的列车线路。他的导师Aurelio Muttoni是洛桑联邦理工学院的全职教授兼结构混凝土实验室(IBETON)主任。那些目光敏锐的人无疑会注意到该毕业设计与瑞士城铁项目的若干相似之处。瑞士城铁项目是上世纪90年代由洛桑联邦理工学院研究的一套城铁系统,极富未来主义感。按照计划,瑞士城铁将以500km/h的速度连接瑞士的主要城镇。Notari的硕士毕业设计实际上是瑞士城铁设计的一个变体,将原本于地下隧道穿行的列车改为在日内瓦湖湖底穿行。
But is it really possible to build a metro through Lake Geneva? What some consider sacrilegious is a fascinating technical challenge for others – one that draws on multiple disciplines, covering everything from structural design and hydraulics to geotechnics and the environmental impact.
但是,在日内瓦湖的湖底修建一条地铁,真的有这种可能吗?有些人认为这是亵渎神灵的行为,但对其他人来说却是一项引人入胜的技术挑战——它涉及多个学科,涵盖从结构设计和水力学到岩土工程和环境影响的方方面面。
       A submerged bridge
       水中桥

Notari focused on designing and calculating the dimensions of a double-track tunnel made out of reinforced concrete: an ‘underwater bridge’ – or to be more specific, a ‘floating underwater tunnel.’ Covering a distance of around 55 kilometers, the tracks would use magnetic levitation – or maglev – to get the train to travel at high speed. With this type of system, one set of magnets is placed on the tracks; a second set on the bottom of the train is repelled by the first, which pushes the train up off the track. In some cases, the repulsive force of the magnet is controlled by a current running along the track.
       Notari将精力投入钢筋混凝土双线隧道尺寸的设计和计算,最终设计出一座“水下桥”,或者更具体地说,一座“水下悬浮隧道”。该线路全长约55公里,利用磁悬浮技术实现列车的高速行驶。磁悬浮系统的原理是:将一组磁铁安置在轨道上,列车底部的第二组磁铁与其发生排斥,从而把列车推离轨道。在某些情况下,磁铁的斥力由沿轨道传播的电流控制。
       Fig.1: The double-track tunnel and its compartments containing ballast. © EPFL 2018 / E. Notari
       图1:双线隧道及其包含压载物的隔间。© 洛桑联邦理工学院,2018年/拍摄者:E. Notari
       This kind of system is not yet used in transportation, but several countries are now testing prototypes and plan to start building soon. In 2015, the Shinkansen Maglev prototype developed by Japanese company JR Central set the world record when it reached a speed of 603 km/h. For his work, Notari drew on policy guidelines developed in Germany, which are better suited to short distances, like that between Geneva and Lausanne.
       这种系统目前还没有在实际交通运输环境中使用,但部分国家正在测试原型系统并计划尽快开始建造。2015年,日本东海旅客铁道公司(JR Central)研发的新干线磁悬浮原型列车以603km/h的速度创造了世界纪录。Notari在自己的设计中借鉴了德国制定的政策指导,因为他们的指导更适于短途出行,比如日内瓦和洛桑之间的行程。
       Several options to choose from
       若干种可供选择的方案
       There are several options available to an engineer looking to build a train that can run under water. The tunnel can, for example, be set under the ground, as is the case with Eurostar, which was opened in 1994 across the Channel and connects London with several cities in mainland Europe.
       对于想要建造一辆能在水下行驶的列车的工程师来说,存在着若干种可供选择的方案。例如,这条隧道可以像欧洲之星(Eurostar)一样建在地下。欧洲之星于1994年开通,横跨英吉利海峡连接了伦敦和欧洲大陆的几个城市。
       Norway is looking into another option to link its fjords with its cities – an underwater tunnel suspended at a series of floats that can be seen on the surface. Yet another solution involves putting metal rods in the ground to anchor down the tunnel. However, this will only work if the tunnel itself is buoyant enough.
       挪威正在研究另一种将峡湾和城市连接起来的方案,即由一系列水面可见的浮体悬吊起来的水下隧道。另一种解决方案是将金属杆埋入地下以固定隧道。然而,这只有在隧道本身拥有足够浮力的情况下才会起作用。
       Yet none of these options was quite right for Lake Geneva. This was mainly because its clear waters make it popular among sports enthusiasts and esthetes, which meant the student had to design a tunnel that was at least 20 meters deep and not visible from the surface.
       然而,这些方案对日内瓦湖来说都不太合适。主要原因是,日内瓦湖的湖水非常清澈,吸引了众多的体育爱好者和欣赏风景的人。也就是说,这意味着他必须设计一条至少深20米的隧道,否则就会从水面看见。
       30 meters underwater
       水下30米
       Notari therefore went with a bridge located 30 meters below the surface and supported by piers made of reinforced concrete. This solution was the most rigid, which is a crucial factor for a high-speed train. It was also the most secure in the event of internal flooding. Other advantages also guided his choice. With this solution, the temperature would be constant throughout the entire structure, which would prevent any thermal deformation as a result of the changing seasons. Waves are also at their weakest at that kind of depth, and the bridge would not get in the way of any existing structures.
       因此,Notari设计了一座位于水面以下30米的桥梁,由钢筋混凝土制成的桥墩支撑。这种解决方案是最严格的,也是高速列车能否成功的关键因素之一。如果发生湖内洪水,这种方案也是最安全的。其它方面的优势也引导了他的选择。有了这种解决方案,整个构筑物的温度将是恒定的,可以防止由于季节变化而引起的任何热变形。在这种深度下,波浪的能量也处于最弱的状态,桥梁也不会挡住任何现有的构筑物

 

What’s more, the hydrostatic pressure would be a bonus in terms of the solidity of the 199 modules making up the concrete tunnels. The engineer’s tunnel measures 14.5 meters in diameter and is designed to withstand earthquakes, internal and external explosions, flooding, tsunamis and landslides. The structure would include compartments containing ballast to make it possible to stabilize the tunnel at any time based on Archimedes’ principle. To adjust to the lake’s varying depth, the height of the pillars, which are 6 meters in diameter, would range from 7.5 to 45 meters. The bridge’s route would follow the lakeshore (see Fig.2. on the left). And the two ends of the line would be connected to the Geneva and Lausanne train stations via elevators.
       而且,混凝土隧道由199个模块组成,静水压力对其坚固性而言很有帮助。这位工程师设计的隧道直径14.5米,可以抵御地震、内部和外部爆炸、洪水、海啸和滑坡。该构筑物设计有包含压载物的隔间,以便根据阿基米德的原理随时稳定隧道。为了适应湖体的不同深度,直径6米的桥柱从7.5米高到45米高不等。该桥的走向沿湖岸而行(见左边的图2)。线路的两端将通过电梯与日内瓦火车站和洛桑火车站相连。
       Too technically feasible to be utopian
       技术可行性强,并非不切实际
       The idea of an underwater bridge in Lake Geneva doesn’t seem so utopian to the freshly graduated engineer. “The concept of an underwater bridge has been around for a century,” says Notari. “Our know-how has advanced significantly thanks to projects like oil platforms and offshore wind farms. What’s missing is a pioneering investor who’s ready to put up the money to fund the construction of a prototype.”
       对于一个刚毕业的工程师来说,在日内瓦湖建造一座水下桥梁的想法并非那么不切实际。“水下桥梁的概念已经有一个世纪左右的历史了。”Notari说。“得益于石油平台和海上风力发电场等项目,我们的知识水平进步显著。现在缺少的是一位愿意出资建造原型系统的先驱式投资者。”
       For Aurelio Muttoni, high-speed transportation projects have great potential:“The solution that Elia studied is technically realistic. I myself came up with a similar solution in the 1990s when studying the feasibility of crossing Lake Lugano as part of the southern extension of the Gotthard high-speed train line.” Muttoni adds that he was inspired by Hyperloop, Elon Musk’s ultra-fast train, when suggesting the topic to his student. (See the EPFL news article from 23 July 2018.)
       在Aurelio Muttoni看来,高速交通项目具有巨大的潜力:“Elia研究的解决方案在技术方面是很现实的。上世纪90年代,我自己也提出了类似的解决方案,当时我在研究Gotthard高速铁路线南段部分穿越卢加诺湖(Lake Lugano)的可行性。”Muttoni补充说,当他向Elia Notari提出这个题目时,他的学生已经从伊隆·马斯克的超高速列车“超回路列车”中获得了灵感。(参见2018年7月23日的洛桑联邦理工学院新闻文章。)
       But given the complexity of the situation, the environmental challenges and the high costs of this kind of project, Muttoni is convinced that it will be many years before Lake Geneva gets an underwater tunnel.
       但考虑到状况的复杂性、环境的挑战以及此类项目的高成本,Muttoni相信,建成日内瓦湖水下隧道还需要很多年的时间。
       References
       参考文献
       Elia Notari, Conception et dimensionnement d’un pont submergé dans le lac Léman, Master’s project supervised by Aurelio Muttoni, Structural Concrete Laboratory (IBETON), 2018.
      《Conception et dimensionnement d’un pont submergé dans le lac Léman》。作者:Elia Notari;毕业设计导师:Aurelio Muttoni;结构混凝土实验室(IBETON),2018年。


0
责任编辑:editor

上一条: 挪威拟建世界第一条“悬浮隧道”World's first 'floating tunnel' proposed in Norway

下一条: 中交悬浮隧道研究组召开第七次工作会议


中国交建 TEC TU 天科院 大连理工大学

Copyright © 2019 中交悬浮隧道工程技术联合研究组_CCCC_SFTJT版权所有 |粤ICP备05060342号-7· 设为首页 · 加入收藏 · 管理系统SFT · 管理系统(内网)