挪威是否可以在建造“悬浮隧道”的全球竞赛中获胜?Can Norway win the global race to build a 'floating tunnel'? | 国际研究动态 | 中交悬浮隧道工程技术联合研究组_CCCC_SFTJT 


国际研究动态

挪威是否可以在建造“悬浮隧道”的全球竞赛中获胜?Can Norway win the global race to build a 'floating tunnel'?

       https://edition.cnn.com/style/article/norway-underwater-floating-tunnel-intl/index.html

       Norway is working on an ambitious infrastructure project to improve the journey between the cities of Kristiansand and Trondheim, which is part of the E39 route crossing the southwestern coast. It is a long journey that requires 21 hours and seven ferry crossings through fjords. The government plans to cut travel time by half. NPRA
       挪威正在致力于一项雄心勃勃的基础设施项目,以期改善克里斯蒂安桑市(Kristiansand)和特隆赫姆市(Trondheim)之间的交通状况。该项目亦是纵横西南海岸的E39公路的一部分。这段穿过峡湾的旅程非常漫长,需要21个小时并经过7个渡口。政府计划将旅行时间减少一半。挪威国家公路局

       With majestic glaciers, fjords and mountains, Norway is famous for its dramatic natural landscape.
       雄伟的冰川、峡湾和山脉,挪威以其引人注目的自然景观而闻名。
       Its rugged terrain does not make traveling easy, however. More than 1,000 fjords line the Scandinavian country's west coast, which is home to a third of the country's population of 5.3 million. To make the 1,100 kilometer journey between the southern city of Kristiansand and Trondheim in the north via the west coast, for example, currently takes 21 hours, and requires seven ferry crossings.
       然而,由于地形崎岖,出行在这个国家并非易事。这个斯堪的纳维亚国家的西海岸分布着超过1000个峡湾,而那里居住着530万人口,占全国人口的三分之一。例如,从南部城市克里斯蒂安桑到北部城市特隆赫姆,途经西海岸,全程1100公里,目前需要21小时并经过7个渡口。
       The Norwegian government plans to cut that time by half with a groundbreaking $40 billion infrastructure project to make the route "ferry-free."
       挪威政府计划实施一项耗资400亿美元的基础设施项目,使该线路“无需搭乘渡轮”,从而将旅行时间缩短一半。
       The plan includes bridges and the world's deepest and longest rock tunnel -- drilled through bedrock under the seabed -- measuring 392 meters (1,286 feet) deep and 27 kilometers (17 miles) long.
       该计划包括多座桥梁以及全世界最深、最长的岩石隧道(钻穿海床下的基岩),深392米(1286英尺)、长27公里(17英里)。
       But the most ambitious aspect is the development of submerged floating tunnels that sit around 30 meters (100 feet) under the surface of the water.
       但最雄心勃勃的方面是水中悬浮隧道的研发,这些隧道位于水下30米(100英尺)。
       If successful, Norway could win a global race against countries including China, South Korea and Italy, which are researching similar projects.
       如果成功,挪威将在对手包括中国、韩国和意大利的全球竞赛中获胜,这些国家也正在研究类似的项目。
       The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA), the governmental body responsible for the project, aims to complete construction by 2050.
       挪威国家公路局(NPRA)是负责该项目的政府机构,其目标是在2050年前完成建设。
       Why build a floating tunnel?
       为什么要建造一座悬浮隧道?
       The journey between Kristiansand and Trondheim is part of the E39, which is a "key route for Norway," explains Kjersti Kvalheim Dunham, a project manager at NPRA.
       挪威国家公路局项目经理Kjersti Kvalheim Dunham解释说,克里斯蒂安桑和特隆赫姆之间的行程是E39公路的一部分,也是“挪威的关键路线”。
       A combination of motorways, roads and ferry rides, E39 runs along the southwestern Norwegian coast. More than 50% of export goods in Norway originate from this area, she adds -- yet the route "has a very low standard for a European road." Crossing the fjords via ferry, while a popular transport method, can be time-consuming.
       E39公路由高速公路、公路和轮渡组成,沿挪威西南部海岸运行。她补充说,挪威超过50%的出口货物来自这一地区,但这条路线“作为一条欧洲公路而言,标准非常低。”乘渡轮穿越峡湾虽然是一种较普遍的交通方式,但可能很费时。
       The government intends to improve transport "for commercial purposes (and) also for the welfare of the local population," Dunham says.
       Dunham表示,政府计划“出于商业目的(和)当地居民福祉的考量”改善交通。
Three suspension bridges and five floating bridges will be built. Floating bridges -- structures that are supported by pontoons -- have been built in Norway and the US, among other countries.
       共建设三座悬索桥和五座浮桥。在挪威、美国和其它部分国家,浮桥(由浮箱支撑的构筑物)已经建成。
       When a fjord is deeper than 1 kilometer (0.6 miles) or wider than 5 kilometers (3 miles), however, existing engineering solutions are not going to cut it. The seabed would be too deep to be drilled through for a rock tunnel or for a suspension bridge's foundations to be laid.
       然而,当峡湾的深度超过1公里(0.6英里)或宽度超过5公里(3英里)时,现有的工程解决方案无法解决这个问题。海床太深,无法钻通以铺设岩石隧道或悬索桥的地基。
       Floating bridges do not work in all cases because they are susceptible to harsh weather conditions such as strong waves and currents.
       浮桥并非在所有情况下都能正常工作,因为它们容易受到恶劣天气条件的影响,比如巨浪和洋流。
       This is where the floating tunnels come in.
       而这正是悬浮隧道的用武之地。
       The anatomy of a floating tunnel
       悬浮隧道剖析
       The idea for a submerged floating tunnel is not new. In 1882, British naval architect Edward Reed proposed a floating tunnel across the English Channel -- an idea that was vetoed.
       建造水中悬浮隧道的想法并不新鲜。1882年,英国海军建筑师Edward Reed提议建造一条横跨英吉利海峡的悬浮隧道,但遭到否决。
       The term "floating" is perhaps misleading. The tunnels are fixed in position with cables -- either anchored to the seabed or tethered to pontoons which are spaced far enough apart to allow boats to pass through. Made of concrete, they would function like conventional tunnels, transporting vehicles from one end of a fjord to another.
       “悬浮”一词可能具有误导性。实际上,隧道被缆索固定住了位置——或者锚定在海床,或者系在浮箱上。浮箱之间离得足够远,以便船只通过。这些隧道由混凝土制成,功能类似于传统的隧道,将车辆从峡湾的一端运送到另一端。

A rendering that shows the floating tunnel anchored to the seabed via cables. Credit:NPRA
通过缆索将悬浮隧道固定在海床的效果图。供图:挪威国家公路局

       Waves and currents at 100 feet below sea level are less powerful than those at the surface, explains NPRA's chief engineer Arianna Minoretti.
       挪威国家公路局的总工程师Arianna Minoretti解释说,海平面以下100英尺处的海浪和洋流都要比海面上的要小。
       In addition, a floating tunnel minimizes the impact on the landscape since most of the infrastructure is out of sight. It also creates less noise than traffic on a bridge would. "That would be an advantage ... (for) people living in the area," Minoretti says.
       此外,由于大部分基础设施都在视野之外,悬浮隧道将对景观的影响将降到最低。相比于跨海大桥,悬浮隧道产生的噪音也更低。“(对)生活在该地区的人来说……这将是一个有利条件。”Minoretti说。
       Ambitious project
       雄心勃勃的项目
       The biggest risks in the project are explosions, fire and overloading, says Minoretti -- and so extensive testing is essential.
       Minoretti表示,该项目最大的风险是爆炸、火灾和超载,因此广泛的测试是必不可少的。
       NPRA is working with the Norwegian University of Science and Technology's Center for Advanced Structural Analysis (CASA), using live explosives to           "investigate how tubular concrete structures behave when subjected to internal blast loads," says CASA researcher Martin Kristoffersen.
       挪威国家公路局正与挪威科技大学高级结构分析中心(CASA)合作,使用活性炸药“研究钢管混凝土结构在内部爆炸荷载下的行为”,高级结构分析中心研究员Martin Kristoffersen表示。
       The tests will help the team to understand what would happen to the tunnel's structure if, for example, a truck carrying dangerous goods exploded inside.
       这些试验将帮助团队了解,如果一辆载有危险货物的卡车在隧道内爆炸,隧道的结构会发生什么变化。
       Results so far indicate that the constant water pressure that surrounds the floating tunnels reduces the damage caused by explosions.
       到目前为止的结果表明,悬浮隧道周围恒定的水压减轻了爆炸造成的破坏。
A rendering of a submerged floating tunnel under the surface of the water. Credit:NPRA
海平面以下的水中悬浮隧道的效果图。供图:挪威国家公路局
       Working with the Norwegian navy, the NPRA team is also investigating how the tunnels would fare if submarines crashed into them.
       挪威国家公路局的团队与挪威海军合作,研究潜艇撞击对隧道的影响。
       While locations for the submerged floating tunnels have not yet been pinned down, Minoretti says the project will be completed in just over 30 years' time.
       尽管水中悬浮隧道的位置尚未确定,Minoretti表示这个项目将在30年多一点的时间内完成。
       The improved E39 will open up more of the west coast to tourism, while the tunnels may become attractions in their own right -- especially if they are a world first.
       经过改善的E39公路将为西海岸的旅游业带来更多机会,而隧道本身也可能成为旅游景点——尤其是如果它确实成为世界上第一条水中悬浮隧道的话。
"As a bridge engineer working on this amazing project," says Minoretti, "one can only hope."
       Minoretti说:“作为一名桥梁工程师,能为这个令人惊叹的项目工作,我们只能抱有希望。”

责任编辑:editor

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